Hướng dẫn thay đổi áp ra cho các mạch nguồn xung

Hướng dẫn thay đổi áp ra cho các mạch nguồn xung

* Xét về loại mạch sử dụng bộ so sánh áp TL431:

- Ở các mạch nguồn xung cơ bản các bạn sẽ thấy các điện trở phân áp để tạo các điện áp mẫu rồi sau đó đem về IC so sánh điện áp TL431 (với độ chính xác cao, bình thường nó mở, không thông xuống GND, nhưng nếu điện áp lấy mẫu vượt điện áp đinh danh 2.5V thì nó đóng thống GND giống như diot zener, rất chính xác)

- Sơ đồ mạch nguyên lý cơ bản mạch lấy áp mẫu bằng TL431:

Các bạn sẽ thấy điện áp lấy mẫu được lấy tại chân số 1 của TL431 và nó được 2 điện trở phân áp R12+R10 và R9 tạo ra mẫu để so sánh.

Khi điện áp mẫu <2.5V thì nó dẫn, khi điện áp mẫu lớn hơn 2.5V thì nó đóng thông với mass.

Như vậy, các bạn chỉ cần thay điện trở lấy mẫu để có được áp như mong muốn bằng cách thay đổi R10 = VR5k còn R9 = 750R.

* Xét các mạch ổn áp bằng zener thì nguyên tắc cũng tương đương

Chỉ cần thay đổi diode ghim áp Zener ở đầu ra, điện áp ra sẽ bằng tổng điện áp rơi trên so quang và zener. Ở đây là 8.2V + 0.8V

*Lưu ý: khi thay đổi điện áp các bạn cần chú ý thêm giá trị tụ lọc nguồn cần chịu đựng điện áp cao hơn, có thể thay diode xung đầu ra để nâng dòng tuy nhiên còn phụ thuộc vào biến áp xung công suất thế nào.

Chúc các bạn thực hiện thành công

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